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As far as I 1 Hiller von Gärtringen. Sarkady, Studies in Greek heortology. Debrecen , 15, V. Grace, The eponyms named on Rhodian amphora stamps. Hesperia 22 The name Ainêtôr occurs on p. Photo of the seal fig. Drawing of the seal 8. The stele contains three letters: The letters are dated to the month Gorpiaios of the year S. Greek epigraphy; Old Testament pseudepigrapha; Seleucid administration; intertestamental era; Jewish history in the Hellenistic age.

Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: Jerusalem] was inhabited in unbroken peace and the laws were very well observed because of the piety of the high priest Onias and his hatred of wickedness 2Macc 3: Simon reported to him that the treasury of the Temple of Jerusalem was so full of money that the amount could not be reckoned.

Part of this money did not belong to the account of the sacrifices, so it was possible for them to fall under the control of the king Seleucus. Heliodorus at once set out on his journey, ostensibly to make a tour of inspection of the cities of Coelesyria and Phoenicia, but in fact 1 The Greek word phyle means not only tribe but also priestly clan.

All Greek texts contain Benjamin, but in the Latin and Armenian versions of the 2Macc we find Balcea, Balgei, Balgeus, which refers to the well-known priestly family of Balga or Bilgah, mentioned at Neh In later times Jews held the clan of Bilgah in ignominy for impious acts of its members during the reign of Antiochus IV; see M. In translations from the Hebrew Bible the noun kar officer, 1Chron In the context dealing with the temple at 2Chron On these derivatives of the root pqd see S.

VI in Hebrew. Der kleine Pauly I ; A. Jones, The Greek City. Oxford , , , In Ptolemaic Egypt an agoranomos was a registrar of documents; see H. Bell, The agoranomeion to kai mnemeion. Archiv für Papyrusforschung 6 To take temple property was the crime of sacrilege hierosylia.

Nowhere in the 2Macc 3 4 does the Greek root occur, though the author used it to condemn the depredations of Lysimachus and Menelaus 4: Indeed, the point in the story of the miracle vss , 15, 22 is God s protection of private deposits in His temple, not His protection of sacred funds or His exclusion of pagans from holy soil cf.

Although a Greek could consecrate money to a god for safekeeping in his temple and still treat the money as an ordinary deposit that procedure was not open to a Jew: Today, this story is well-known because of its artistic representations: When the greedy and sacrilegious Heliodorus intruded into the Jewish Temple to control personally the counting of money talents of silver, talents of gold , he was attacked by a magnificently caparisoned horse, with a rider of frightening mien in armor and weapons of gold, as well as two youth remarkably strong, gloriously beautiful and splendidly dressed who beated him badly 2Macc 3: The half dead Seleucid minister convalesced only after the high priest Onias III offered a sacrifice for his recovery 2Macc 3: Maresha was first extensively excavated by F.

Macalister, during the years The site has three main features: The early Hellenistic Maresha was planned by the Hippodamian system; the lower city, built around the mound, was encircled by a defensive wall. The main finds of Maresha were the subterranean complexes with painted tombs of Sidonian style.

The site was under Ptolemaic control during the 3rd century B. During the excavations of the so-called Subterranean Complex 57, located some metres to the SE of Maresha s akropolis, were carried out under the direction of Bernie Alpert and Ian Stern. According to the excavators all datable material petroglyphs, bowls and ostraca belongs to the 3 rd -2nd centuries B.

In addition, the excavators found in Room 1 three inscribed stone fragments in Greek fragment D in ; fragment C and E in , belonging to the lower part of the stele published by Hannah M.

The copy of the letter handed over to us by Heliodoros who is in charge of the affairs is enclosed. You will do well therefore if you take care that everything is carried out according to the instructions. Heliodoros to Dorymenes his brother greetings.

The copy of the order by the king concerning Olympiodoros handed over to us is placed below. You will do well therefore if you follow the insctructions.

We, taking the greatest care concerning the security of our subjects, and thinking it to be of the greatest good for our affairs when those who live throughout the kingdom lead their own lives without fear, and observing at the same time that nothing can partake of due good fortune without the favour of the gods, have prescribed from the start that the established sanctuaries throughout the other satrapies be provided with the ancestral honours with the proper service.

The question arises how and why did this important piece make its way into the hands of a private collector? According to media reports, the stele was purchased in early by Michael Steinhardt, a founding co-chairman of Birthright Israel.

Notwithstanding, it was not Steinhardt whom the item was purchased from, but Gil and Lisa Chaya, who are registered antiquities dealers in Jerusalem. Gil Chaya is reportedly a nephew of Shlomo Moussaieff, owner of perhaps the largest collection of Biblical antiquities in the world.

Despite the fact that it is without a known context and was bought on the antiquities market, the Heliodorus stele was officially published in ZPE , with a separate article in the same journal confirming its authenticity by Yuval Goren of Tel Aviv University.

The stele made the news again this year because, upon its publication in the ZPE, Dov Gera realized that three pieces of an inscription found by Dig For A Day volunteers excavating in and within Cave 57 at Tell Maresha in Beit Guvrin National Park are apparently from the missing base of the Heliodorus stele.

This matches exactly with Y. Goren s conclusion, reached independently more than a year earlier, that the stele was most likely found at the site of Tell Maresha in a closed cave where ritual burning activities took place. Wörrle, ZPE This prostagma is preceded by two letters: Dorymenes informs the recipient that a copy of a letter sent by Heliodoros who is in charge of the affairs is enclosed. The letter is dated to the month Gorpiaios of the year SE summer of B. The second epistle, of the same month and year, was sent by Heliodoros to Dorymenes.

The chancelor of the kingdom greets Dorymenes as brother and informs him that a copy of the king s order concerning Olympiodoros is appended. The king s order, naturally the most important document of this dossier, stood lowermost.

Let us recapitulate the contents of Seleucus IV s instructions to Heliodoros. The letter opens with greetings from the king to Heliodoros. The king then claims to possess the greatest foresight with regard to the safety of his subjects, whose quiet lifestyle will contribute immensely to the affairs of the realm.

Seleucus is aware, however, that the achievement of such good fortune is dependent upon the favour of the gods. As a result, he had dedicated himself to ensuring that the temples in all the other satrapies shall receive the honours due to them from ancient times. The monarch then informs Heliodoros of his intention to appoint a certain Olympiodoros to supervise the proper management of associations, obviously in connection with their cultic practices. Gera, ZPE ,. Above the royal epistle there is a missive from Zeuxis to Philotas, and on the top of the inscription a letter from Philotas to Bithys.

Scholars suggest that Philotas was the governor of Mysia, while Bithys is probably a hyparchos of the locality in which the inscription was found.

The parallel to be drawn from these dossiers is clear. The date of this mission is uncertain, and it is to be placed either in B. Oxford , ; L. Capdetrey, Le pouvoir séleucide: Rennes , ; J. Grainger, A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Leiden , ; Gera , H. Wien , Gera , Gera , Herrmann, Chiron 17 upon the succession of Antiochus IV to the throne. According to Cotton and Wörrle there may have been a time gap between the two Apollonioses. Dov Gera argues that this name in 2Macc 3: As the last attested date for Ptolemaios governorship is B.

It is also worth mentioning that a certain Ptolemaios son of Dorymenes appears as a member of the court of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

A person of the same name is mentioned in 1Macc and other sources in connection with the events of , where he is listed as the first of three Seleucid generals beside Nicanor and Gorgias, who were entrusted to annihilate the rebellious Hasmoneans. The date refers to the letters of ll Gera ,. The date of the Heliodorus affair Hellenistic kings were pleased to increase their popularity by showing generosity to temples both Greek and non-greek whenever their resources permitted, 21 Antiochus III was, however, killed attempting to rob a temple in B.

Many scholars do not reject the tale of the attempt by Heliodorus to despoil the Temple, and explain the miraculous outcome as a fanciful version of a more mundane solution of the crisis reached by the Jews and the Seleucid government. During the campaign, the king had received some help from the Jews 2Macc 3: It is said of Antiochos III s son and heir, Seleucus IV, that he furnished all ongoing expenses for the performance of sacrifices out of his own income 2Macc 3: Notwithstanding, king Seleucus IV also inherited the harsh terms of the Apamea treaty.

The Seleucids had to pay Rome s war expenses, the sum of 15, talents. Five hundred talents were to be handed over immediately, an additional 2, talents paid after the agreement was ratified in Rome, and the remainder transferred to Rome in 12 yearly installments. According to Dov Gera the appointment of Olympiodoros seems to have been part of an 21 Bickerman , Fischer ; Gera , ; Schwartz ; Kennell ; Ego Gera , Elias Bickerman proved the authenticity of this royal decree Bickerman At this point, however, Dov Gera makes a mistake, applying the Seleucus IV s dossier from Maresha to the story of Heliodoros in 2Macc We should, however, emphasize that the exact date of the Heliodoros affair was not precisely defined in 2Macc.

If we accept its basic historicity, it could have happened at any time during the twelve-year-long reign of Seleucus IV B. Let us now turn back to the Second Book of the Maccabees which refers to the aftermath of the Heliodorus affair as well. According to Jason of Cyrene supposedly the author of the 2Macc Helidoros was grateful to Onias III, the high priest, because of his miraculous healing, and marched back with his army to the king 2Macc 4: But Seleucus IV and Heliodoros himself did not abandon his project to take over the treasures of the Jerusalem Temple.

They could not, because they had to pay the yearly installments to Rome. The story continues as follows: He will come back to you scourged, if he survives at all, because a divine power truly surrounds the place 2Macc 3: We do not know how many time passed since the Heliodoros affair.

Could it be possible that Olympiodoros, the syntrophos, chamberlain and one of the First Friends of Seleucus IV was the secret enemy of the sovereign, who was sent instead of Heliodoros to Jerusalem? It is not an unlikely hypothesis, if we assume that the Heliodoros affair happened between B.

In consequence of this, we do not need to assume as Dove Gera does that the Seleucid official who confronted the Jerusalem authorities was in fact Olympiodoros and not Heliodoros. Ma is of the same opinion. For it was Heliodoros who was blamed for the king s ultimately death, as can be learned from a later source Appian. The author of 2Maccabees seems to be aware of this Thus, in both rank and character, Heliodoros would have been a more suitable choice for the role of Seleucid official who overrules the objections of the righteous Onias III, but suffers the consequences at the hands of God s emissaries.

Conspicuosly, the author of 2Macc does not present Seleucus IV as an evil king. This journey have taken place in the final days of the king, because Jason of Cyrene does not tell a single word about the decision of Seleucus IV, but suddenly refers to the king s death and succession of the throne when Seleucus passed away and Antiochus, called Epiphanes, succeeded to the throne, 2Macc 4: There is no mention of Heliodoros coup d état, murder or theodicy.

We possess only one historical source which refers to the king s murder: Bengtson, Die Strategie in der hellenistischen Zeit: Ein Beitrag zum antiken Staatsrecht, vols. Bickerman, La Charte séleucide de Jérusalem. Leiden , II ]. Bickerman, Institutions des Séléucides. Burstein, The Aftermath of the Peace of Apamea. Wörrle, Seleukos IV to Heliodoros. Ego, God s Justice: Fischer, Heliodor im Tempel zu Jerusalem: Gera, Judaea and Mediterranean Politics to B.

Kennell, New Light on 2 Maccabees 4: Journal of Roman Studies 57 1 8. Schwartz, Divine Punishment in Second Maccabees: Vengeance, Abandonment or Loving Discipline?

Festschrift für Hermann Lichtenberger zum In Horace s Epistle to Augustus the estimate of Terence may be less positive than is generally believed. This reinterpretation is based first on classical views of acoustic concinnity, then on etymological considerations.

Terentius, Horatius, labor limae, homoeoptotic homoeoteleuton, callida iunctura The article on Terence in Enciclopedia Oraziana opens with the following sentence: Dal giudizio assai poco lusinghiero che H. Here Minarini understands ars as denoting labor limae. This epistle to the princeps himself repeatedly preaches the importance of labor limae.

Part of this concern with labor limae is to ensure ne ultima syllaba prioris verbi eadem sit quae prima posterioris. Index librorum scriptorum inscriptionum. Enciclopedia Oraziana 1 The same view is taken by P.

Rome , ad loc. The prescription is found already in Isocrates, Tech. Here the violation of the precept cannot be excused on prosodic grounds by the need for a pyrrhic sequence in the fifth biceps to assure a dactyl, since in this case the fifth foot is not at issue, but the fourth. The inelegance of -te Te- could moreover have been easily avoided by a grouping such as arte valere Terentius. Such purposive lack of polish can be shown to have been deployed elsewhere in Horace s oeuvre in order to underline his meaning.

Further confirmation of this view would seem to be supplied by the other word which Horace devotes to his treatment of Terence: The very same sentence of Julius Victor as the one censuring such a collocation as -te Te- also issues the following prohibition: The second hemistich of the line at issue in the present note is the cause of some puzzlement to Brink, who comments: In particular the whole word arte is a virtual homophone of the second half of the foregoing noun -ate.

The element te is accordingly found conspicuously at the beginning or end of three consecutive words: Latomus , The first of these inconcinnities entails a breach of the same precept at issue in the present -te Te-. Brink, Horace on Poetry: The Letters to Augustus and Florus.

In particular this te frames the two words that deal with Terentian drama in the present epistle: Horace has accordingly succeeded in packing a lot of auditive inconcinnity into a mere three feet.

No such inelegance marks the preceding ten lines that make up the rest of this survey of old Roman poetry. After the line that ends with Terentius arte Horace continues: Here the hos are the poets of the foregoing survey. These two verses that deal with them would appear to be marked by etymological word-play. The article on Etimologia in Enciclopedia Oraziana ends by observing that e. He wishes to show by acoustic means that the conventional view of Terence is wrong.

Enciclopedia Oraziana 2 For recent attempts to identify Horatian etymologizing cf. Etymologizing in Epode 2, For etymologizing in the Horatian scholia cf. The Commentators on Horace. Brown University , Brink, op. All these commentators likewise miss the afore-mentioned inconcinnities.

Artus is not an appropriate epithet to qualify theatrum: The fidelity of Terentian translation is notorious: The same wording is used in the immediately preceding line of the Ars Poetica , where Horace condemns this practice: The Epistle to Augustus is accordingly making the wry suggestion that Terence s theatrical art is not a virtue , but on the contrary narrow literality artum.

It may be said in conclusion that here Horace s treatment of ars would seem to qualify as a good example of callida iunctura AP Cairns, Ancient Etymology and Tibullus: On the Classification of Etymologies and on Etymological Markers.

Goetz, Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum 7. Amsterdam , s. No further instance of the application of artus to theatrum is provided by the online Library of Latin Texts. Similarly theatro, with which arto agrees, is assigned the same emphatically final sedes as arte in the line directly above.

La discussione dell erronea lezione di Oct. Il contesto tematico e stilistico Nella prospettiva di uno studio sistematico della tradizione manoscritta dell Octavia un passaggio fondamentale è costituito dai vv , che vanno preliminarmente collocati nel contesto della prima fra le due scene ; delle quali è protagonista Seneca 1. Si tratta di una sequenza monologica in cui il personaggio dapprima lamenta d essere stato innalzato dalla sorte ai fastigi del potere per poi rovinare gravius e sopportare la vista di tot metus , quindi rimpiange l esilio in Corsica, dove poteva dedicarsi agli studi e godere dello spettacolo offertogli dalla volta celeste , infine preconizza la catastrofe del genere umano e la palingenesi del mondo Il personaggio a questo punto inserisce un excursus sulla storia del cosmo, prospettata come ciclo tetrastico di generazioni che procedono fatalmente da una condizione di felicità edenica , collocata tenente regna Saturno poli e dunque coi tratti distintivi della bella età de l oro di tassiana 1 I vv costituiscono il punto di forza di quanti negano la paternità senecana dell Octavia ritenendo irrituale la presenza nel dramma antico di personaggi viventi e tanto più l autorappresentazione dell auctor Aug.

Dei 2, 9, riassumendo e parafrasando Cic. Si tratta tuttavia di argomentazione non del tutto cogente, dato che siamo a conoscenza di almeno due drammi l Agen e la praetexta de itinere ad Lentulum ruotanti sulla contemporaneità e quindi su personaggi vivi e vegeti rispettivamente Alessandro Magno e Cornelio Balbo Minore che, tra l altro, le fonti Ath.

L excursus fornisce quindi le coordinate generali di una teodicea che nel progresso materiale dell umanità, sollecitata a soddisfare i bisogni primari dalla 2 Vd. Peri, Ma il quarto dov è? Indagine sul topos delle bellezze femminili. Pisa , pp Ovvio il riferimento a Hes. Vernant, Il mito esiodeo delle razze. Tentativo di analisi strutturale. Studi di psicologia storica. Torino , pp , spec ; Arat sulla cui scia si pongono i traduttori latini dei Phaenomena, da Cicerone ad Avieno ; Ov.

Sulla riduzione del mito ad opposizione binaria età aurea vs età ferrea vd. Pianezzola, Forma narrativa e funzione paradigmatica di un mito. L età dell oro latina. Modelli retorici e forma narrativa. Bologna , pp In genere, poeti e scrittori che trattano il mito delle aetates mundi strutturano il discorso secondo una linea diacronica che dall aurea aetas giunge alla ferrea, individuata di solito nel presente: Spesso in Virgilio questo motivo è collegato a finalità panegiristiche: Non sempre, comunque, il confronto si risolve in bilancio negativo per l età presente: Leopardi, La ginestra 51 di Vitr.

Presentano questa chiave di lettura i versi relativi al tertium genus, nei quali il Seneca agens enumera le strategie caccia, pesca, domesticamento, agricoltura con le quali esso reperisce le risorse alimentari. La struttura sintattica e stilistica della sequenza consta di una protratta serie di cola paralleli pred. Altra vistosa caratteristica formale è il ricorso all enjambement, per cui la menzione di ciascuna ars non coincide con la misura del verso, ma si protende nell emistichio del verso successivo: Quando il Seneca personaggio delinea le caratteristiche del tertium genus, ricorre agli aggettivi sollers, sanctum, inquietum in funzione di predicativi retti da extitit, ciascuno dei quali accompagnato da un modificatore, complemento indiretto o avverbio, rispettivamente novas ad artes, tamen, mox.

Ci riporta invece ad un contesto analogo a quello dell Octavia rievocazione dell aetas aurea in opposizione binaria al presente, prospettato più o meno esplicitamente come aetas ferrea Sen. Mela 1, 65 Phoenicen inlustravere Phoenices, sollers hominum genus et ad belli pacisque munia eximium: Il mondo antico, mentre accoglie senza riserve la caccia eroica della tradizione mitica ed epica 12, dal carattere agonistico e premilitare, che l uomo esercita inseguendo di corsa la preda 13, generalmente sottopone a censura culturale qualunque forma di caccia finalizzata all alimentazione o comunque praticata con l ausilio di reti o esche 14, che si configurano come vera e propria fraus.

Questo è tanto più vero per l aucupium o uccellagione, che pure sotto il profilo economico doveva essere molto più significativa e diffusa presso i ceti meno abbienti, anche per il basso costo delle attrezzature richieste.

Per il ricorso alla metafora della fraus e dell adescamento in contesti dedicati all aucupium, vd. Hugo de Sancto Victore, Didascalicon de studio legendi 2, 25 Venatio dividitur in ferinam, aucupium et piscaturam.

Longo, Le regole della caccia nel mondo greco-romano. Aufidus 1 , p Vd. E ancora, la caccia è legittima quando obbedisce a scopi difensivi: Unica eccezione Cassiodoro, che riconosce sporadica cautela anche agli uccelli: Di ancor minore considerazione godeva, nel mondo antico, la pesca 16, priva com è delle valenze agonistiche della caccia, dal momento che i pesci sono per lo più inermi e la loro cattura è interamente basata sul ricorso ad esche e reti, in una parola sull uso di insidiae: Non sfuggirà, a questo punto, che l autore dell Octavia, operando un inversione rispetto alla graduatoria consueta, colloca l uccellagione al massimo grado della fraus, ribaltamento cui potrebbe non essere estranea la promozione della pesca operata dagli Halieutica, ovidiani o pseudoovidiani che siano Non di rado, l aucupium viene sfruttato nelle similitudini come figurante dell adescamento per eccellenza: La Penna, La disputa sul primato della caccia o della pesca nell antichità, Philologus , p Vd.

In secondo luogo ai vv colpisce nell economia generale dell excursus lo scarsissimo rilievo dato dall autore della praetexta alla seconda suboles, ché ad essa è riservato appena un complemento predicativo, minus mitis Oct: Zwierlein, Kritischer Kommentar zu den Tragödien Senecas. A play attributed to Seneca. Cambridge New York , pp , n. Delisle, Cabinet des manuscrits I-II. Paris , pp ; A. Studia Copernicana 1 , pp.

Giunto nelle mani del teologo Gérard d'abbeville P. Glorieux, Bibliothèques de Maîtres parisiens: Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 36 , pp ; P. La vie de Gérard d Abbeville. Archives d histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge 31 , pp , è tra i testi della biblioteca di Amiens che giunsero alla Sorbona per suo tramite R. Siglato convenzionalmente P, il manoscritto appartiene alla famiglia del ramo A della tradizione.

Questa famiglia, geograficamente riconducibile all area compresa tra la Francia del Nord e le Fiandre, include oltre a P, un secondo Parisinus Latinus risalente all inizio del XV sec. Leo, De Senecae tragoediis observationes criticae. In base a siffatta scelta la congiunzione disgiuntiva vel introdurrebbe l introduzione di un metodo alternativo dell aucupium decipere crate oppure tenere laqueo , parallelamente al v.

Lugduni Batavorum , p. Busche, Zu Octavia praet. Paris segnala nel testo una lacuna dopo crate e in apparato cita la proposta di Leo, op. Incertorum auctorum Hercules Otaeus, Octavia.

Oxford crate vel tereti vagas predicativo dell oggetto implicito volucres, che fu già del Siegmund. Peiper, Praefationis in Sen. Peiperi subsidiis instructus denuo edenda curavit. Siegmund, Zur Textkritik der Tragödie Octavia. Leipzig Wien , in base a Sen. Bonn e condivisa in apparato da Düring, sulla scia di Leo 25, ipotizza che il sostantivo crate sia stato originariamente vergato nel subarchetipo A o in suo apografo come variante di rete nello spazio interlineare corrispondente all attuale verso Notes on the text of Seneca s tragedies.

Boyle, Octavia attributed to Seneca. Oxford , integrazione che ha goduto e gode di maggior fortuna. Bologna , ad loc. Altrettanto dicasi per Ferri, op. Aeneas costas et cratis pectoris ensem o designare maforicamente tutto quanto risulti inestricabile Oros. D altronde anche Ferri esclude che cratis possa essere connesso con la caccia: Talvolta reti di tal fatta venivano stese sulle fronde degli alberi con l aiuto di canne aucupatoriae.

A parer nostro, tuttavia, prima ancora di affrontare lo spinoso problema del v. In senso proprio calamus designa una pianta palustre dagli innumerevoli usi e campi d applicazione: In senso traslato calamus designa spesso per metonimia oggetti che da esso rarisque textu veluti nassis in alto iactis inoltre 21, ; 32, , per cui cfr.

Ecce etiam per antemnam pelagiae consederant volucres, quas textis harundinibus peritus artifex tetigit; illae viscatis inligatae viminibus deferebantur ad manus. Tollebat plumas aura volitantes, pinnasque per maria inanis spuma torquebat: Longo, La caccia al pesce. Lévêque, , pp Cfr. Aucupium fit laqueis, pedicis, retibus, arcu, visco, hamo. Per questa sua qualità il calamus è il materiale ideale per le frecce: In ogni caso la iunctura non è mai usata né per la canna da pesca né per la canna aucupatoria.

Calamus vero alius totus concavus, quem vocant syringian, utilissimus fistulis, quoniam nihil est ei cartilaginis atque carnis. Orchomenio et nodi continuo foramine pervii, quem auleticon vocant. Hic tibiis formata da due canne utilior, fistulis ille flauto di Pan, costituito da una serie di canne di sposte in ordine di lunghezza.

Il fatto che syringia e auleticon siano cavi, privi di sostanza cartilaginosa e graciles come poi viene precisato a , paragrafo interamente dedicato alle canne di E allora altamente probabile che calamo levi anche in Oct. Già abbiamo manifestato le nostre perplessità dinanzi all ipotesi che crate del v. Dei termini che, in contesti dedicati all aucupium, ricorrono come sinonimi di calamus, ovvero harundo, canna, ames, i primi due sono sicuramente troppo comuni per richiedere una glossa; d uso estremamente raro risulta invece ames, per cui cfr.

E probabile che ad un significato del genere avesse pensato già N. Troviamo il verso oraziano citato in un anonimo trattato di metrica, i Fragmenta Sangallensia ad res metricas pertinentia, De iambico trimetro e cod.

Quanto all aut levi che chiude il verso, occorre tenere presente che il tradito dei codici non è unanime, presentando in alternativa l abbreviazione di ante 42, che paleograficamente poco si distingue dalla nota tachigrafica per aut: Thuaneus sigla B , uno dei due codici che trasmettono gli Halieutica di Ovidio l altro è il Vindobonensis noto come A: XII-XIII ipotizza attendibilmente che l apografo comune di B ed A fosse scritto in una corsiva precarolina caratterizzata dalla -a- a forma di cc accostate, quale possiamo rintracciare nella minuscola insulare, nella cosiddetta merovingica di Luxeuil e di Corbie, oltre che nella beneventana.

Analogo errore presenta il Thuaneus, che contiene ai ff un miniflorilegio delle tragedie senecane secondo la redazione E per l esattezza Tro , Med , Oed e e che per Tro. Zwierlein, Prolegomena zu einer kritischen Ausgabe der Tragödien Senecas. Il che apre la possibilità che anche l Octavia possa essere stata presente nella tradizione E in una fase precedente alla composizione dell Etruscus o del suo antigrafo.

L attendibilità di tale proposta, coerente anche con l imitatio oraziana affiorante qua e là nel testo dell Octavia 46, trova ulteriori riscontri sotto il profilo metrico: Avremmo pertanto una struttura di tal fatta: Un possibile integrazione è l infinito fallere 49, con desinenza poco 45 Per la poesia mediolatina cfr. Johannis de Garlandia, Epithal. Per un computo statistico delle occorrenze di dattili in terza sede su un totale dei trimetri giambici presenti nel corpus delle tragedie senecane vd.

O Sufficientemente attestata la compresenza di fallere e decipere nel medesimo contesto: Il quadro sin qui delineato risulta poi coerente con la struttura sintattica e stilistica dell intero passaggio, che ha i suoi tratti caratteristici: In funzione simbolica, Hil. Sic quoque et anima nostra caveat ad haec mundana descendere. Laqueus in auro, viscum est in argento, nexus in praedio, clavus in amore. Dum aurum petimus, strangulamur: Quin etiam mulieris decus, dum temptatur, adstringit.

The final seven epigrams of Martial s Book 1 form a subtle but important closural sequence epigrams inclusive. Despite their great variatio of topics, the seven epigrams are linked through concerns about the boundary between life and death, the integrity of a monument, and the theme of dignus legi, or what makes someone worthy of being read. Through a series of close readings, this article argues for the coherence of this sequence on formal, thematic, and verbal grounds.

The sequence is centered on a pair of epigrams on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young girl named Antulla 1.

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The Seleucids had to pay Rome s war expenses, the sum of 15, talents. Five hundred talents were to be handed over immediately, an additional 2, talents paid after the agreement was ratified in Rome, and the remainder transferred to Rome in 12 yearly installments. According to Dov Gera the appointment of Olympiodoros seems to have been part of an 21 Bickerman , Fischer ; Gera , ; Schwartz ; Kennell ; Ego Gera , Elias Bickerman proved the authenticity of this royal decree Bickerman At this point, however, Dov Gera makes a mistake, applying the Seleucus IV s dossier from Maresha to the story of Heliodoros in 2Macc We should, however, emphasize that the exact date of the Heliodoros affair was not precisely defined in 2Macc.

If we accept its basic historicity, it could have happened at any time during the twelve-year-long reign of Seleucus IV B.

Let us now turn back to the Second Book of the Maccabees which refers to the aftermath of the Heliodorus affair as well. According to Jason of Cyrene supposedly the author of the 2Macc Helidoros was grateful to Onias III, the high priest, because of his miraculous healing, and marched back with his army to the king 2Macc 4: But Seleucus IV and Heliodoros himself did not abandon his project to take over the treasures of the Jerusalem Temple.

They could not, because they had to pay the yearly installments to Rome. The story continues as follows: He will come back to you scourged, if he survives at all, because a divine power truly surrounds the place 2Macc 3: We do not know how many time passed since the Heliodoros affair.

Could it be possible that Olympiodoros, the syntrophos, chamberlain and one of the First Friends of Seleucus IV was the secret enemy of the sovereign, who was sent instead of Heliodoros to Jerusalem?

It is not an unlikely hypothesis, if we assume that the Heliodoros affair happened between B. In consequence of this, we do not need to assume as Dove Gera does that the Seleucid official who confronted the Jerusalem authorities was in fact Olympiodoros and not Heliodoros.

Ma is of the same opinion. For it was Heliodoros who was blamed for the king s ultimately death, as can be learned from a later source Appian. The author of 2Maccabees seems to be aware of this Thus, in both rank and character, Heliodoros would have been a more suitable choice for the role of Seleucid official who overrules the objections of the righteous Onias III, but suffers the consequences at the hands of God s emissaries.

Conspicuosly, the author of 2Macc does not present Seleucus IV as an evil king. This journey have taken place in the final days of the king, because Jason of Cyrene does not tell a single word about the decision of Seleucus IV, but suddenly refers to the king s death and succession of the throne when Seleucus passed away and Antiochus, called Epiphanes, succeeded to the throne, 2Macc 4: There is no mention of Heliodoros coup d état, murder or theodicy.

We possess only one historical source which refers to the king s murder: Bengtson, Die Strategie in der hellenistischen Zeit: Ein Beitrag zum antiken Staatsrecht, vols. Bickerman, La Charte séleucide de Jérusalem.

Leiden , II ]. Bickerman, Institutions des Séléucides. Burstein, The Aftermath of the Peace of Apamea. Wörrle, Seleukos IV to Heliodoros.

Ego, God s Justice: Fischer, Heliodor im Tempel zu Jerusalem: Gera, Judaea and Mediterranean Politics to B. Kennell, New Light on 2 Maccabees 4: Journal of Roman Studies 57 1 8. Schwartz, Divine Punishment in Second Maccabees: Vengeance, Abandonment or Loving Discipline? Festschrift für Hermann Lichtenberger zum In Horace s Epistle to Augustus the estimate of Terence may be less positive than is generally believed.

This reinterpretation is based first on classical views of acoustic concinnity, then on etymological considerations. Terentius, Horatius, labor limae, homoeoptotic homoeoteleuton, callida iunctura The article on Terence in Enciclopedia Oraziana opens with the following sentence: Dal giudizio assai poco lusinghiero che H. Here Minarini understands ars as denoting labor limae. This epistle to the princeps himself repeatedly preaches the importance of labor limae. Part of this concern with labor limae is to ensure ne ultima syllaba prioris verbi eadem sit quae prima posterioris.

Index librorum scriptorum inscriptionum. Enciclopedia Oraziana 1 The same view is taken by P. Rome , ad loc. The prescription is found already in Isocrates, Tech. Here the violation of the precept cannot be excused on prosodic grounds by the need for a pyrrhic sequence in the fifth biceps to assure a dactyl, since in this case the fifth foot is not at issue, but the fourth.

The inelegance of -te Te- could moreover have been easily avoided by a grouping such as arte valere Terentius. Such purposive lack of polish can be shown to have been deployed elsewhere in Horace s oeuvre in order to underline his meaning. Further confirmation of this view would seem to be supplied by the other word which Horace devotes to his treatment of Terence: The very same sentence of Julius Victor as the one censuring such a collocation as -te Te- also issues the following prohibition: The second hemistich of the line at issue in the present note is the cause of some puzzlement to Brink, who comments: In particular the whole word arte is a virtual homophone of the second half of the foregoing noun -ate.

The element te is accordingly found conspicuously at the beginning or end of three consecutive words: Latomus , The first of these inconcinnities entails a breach of the same precept at issue in the present -te Te-. Brink, Horace on Poetry: The Letters to Augustus and Florus. In particular this te frames the two words that deal with Terentian drama in the present epistle: Horace has accordingly succeeded in packing a lot of auditive inconcinnity into a mere three feet.

No such inelegance marks the preceding ten lines that make up the rest of this survey of old Roman poetry. After the line that ends with Terentius arte Horace continues: Here the hos are the poets of the foregoing survey.

These two verses that deal with them would appear to be marked by etymological word-play. The article on Etimologia in Enciclopedia Oraziana ends by observing that e. He wishes to show by acoustic means that the conventional view of Terence is wrong.

Enciclopedia Oraziana 2 For recent attempts to identify Horatian etymologizing cf. Etymologizing in Epode 2, For etymologizing in the Horatian scholia cf. The Commentators on Horace. Brown University , Brink, op. All these commentators likewise miss the afore-mentioned inconcinnities. Artus is not an appropriate epithet to qualify theatrum: The fidelity of Terentian translation is notorious: The same wording is used in the immediately preceding line of the Ars Poetica , where Horace condemns this practice: The Epistle to Augustus is accordingly making the wry suggestion that Terence s theatrical art is not a virtue , but on the contrary narrow literality artum.

It may be said in conclusion that here Horace s treatment of ars would seem to qualify as a good example of callida iunctura AP Cairns, Ancient Etymology and Tibullus: On the Classification of Etymologies and on Etymological Markers.

Goetz, Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum 7. Amsterdam , s. No further instance of the application of artus to theatrum is provided by the online Library of Latin Texts. Similarly theatro, with which arto agrees, is assigned the same emphatically final sedes as arte in the line directly above.

La discussione dell erronea lezione di Oct. Il contesto tematico e stilistico Nella prospettiva di uno studio sistematico della tradizione manoscritta dell Octavia un passaggio fondamentale è costituito dai vv , che vanno preliminarmente collocati nel contesto della prima fra le due scene ; delle quali è protagonista Seneca 1. Si tratta di una sequenza monologica in cui il personaggio dapprima lamenta d essere stato innalzato dalla sorte ai fastigi del potere per poi rovinare gravius e sopportare la vista di tot metus , quindi rimpiange l esilio in Corsica, dove poteva dedicarsi agli studi e godere dello spettacolo offertogli dalla volta celeste , infine preconizza la catastrofe del genere umano e la palingenesi del mondo Il personaggio a questo punto inserisce un excursus sulla storia del cosmo, prospettata come ciclo tetrastico di generazioni che procedono fatalmente da una condizione di felicità edenica , collocata tenente regna Saturno poli e dunque coi tratti distintivi della bella età de l oro di tassiana 1 I vv costituiscono il punto di forza di quanti negano la paternità senecana dell Octavia ritenendo irrituale la presenza nel dramma antico di personaggi viventi e tanto più l autorappresentazione dell auctor Aug.

Dei 2, 9, riassumendo e parafrasando Cic. Si tratta tuttavia di argomentazione non del tutto cogente, dato che siamo a conoscenza di almeno due drammi l Agen e la praetexta de itinere ad Lentulum ruotanti sulla contemporaneità e quindi su personaggi vivi e vegeti rispettivamente Alessandro Magno e Cornelio Balbo Minore che, tra l altro, le fonti Ath.

L excursus fornisce quindi le coordinate generali di una teodicea che nel progresso materiale dell umanità, sollecitata a soddisfare i bisogni primari dalla 2 Vd. Peri, Ma il quarto dov è? Indagine sul topos delle bellezze femminili. Pisa , pp Ovvio il riferimento a Hes. Vernant, Il mito esiodeo delle razze. Tentativo di analisi strutturale. Studi di psicologia storica. Torino , pp , spec ; Arat sulla cui scia si pongono i traduttori latini dei Phaenomena, da Cicerone ad Avieno ; Ov.

Sulla riduzione del mito ad opposizione binaria età aurea vs età ferrea vd. Pianezzola, Forma narrativa e funzione paradigmatica di un mito.

L età dell oro latina. Modelli retorici e forma narrativa. Bologna , pp In genere, poeti e scrittori che trattano il mito delle aetates mundi strutturano il discorso secondo una linea diacronica che dall aurea aetas giunge alla ferrea, individuata di solito nel presente: Spesso in Virgilio questo motivo è collegato a finalità panegiristiche: Non sempre, comunque, il confronto si risolve in bilancio negativo per l età presente: Leopardi, La ginestra 51 di Vitr.

Presentano questa chiave di lettura i versi relativi al tertium genus, nei quali il Seneca agens enumera le strategie caccia, pesca, domesticamento, agricoltura con le quali esso reperisce le risorse alimentari. La struttura sintattica e stilistica della sequenza consta di una protratta serie di cola paralleli pred. Altra vistosa caratteristica formale è il ricorso all enjambement, per cui la menzione di ciascuna ars non coincide con la misura del verso, ma si protende nell emistichio del verso successivo: Quando il Seneca personaggio delinea le caratteristiche del tertium genus, ricorre agli aggettivi sollers, sanctum, inquietum in funzione di predicativi retti da extitit, ciascuno dei quali accompagnato da un modificatore, complemento indiretto o avverbio, rispettivamente novas ad artes, tamen, mox.

Ci riporta invece ad un contesto analogo a quello dell Octavia rievocazione dell aetas aurea in opposizione binaria al presente, prospettato più o meno esplicitamente come aetas ferrea Sen.

Mela 1, 65 Phoenicen inlustravere Phoenices, sollers hominum genus et ad belli pacisque munia eximium: Il mondo antico, mentre accoglie senza riserve la caccia eroica della tradizione mitica ed epica 12, dal carattere agonistico e premilitare, che l uomo esercita inseguendo di corsa la preda 13, generalmente sottopone a censura culturale qualunque forma di caccia finalizzata all alimentazione o comunque praticata con l ausilio di reti o esche 14, che si configurano come vera e propria fraus.

Questo è tanto più vero per l aucupium o uccellagione, che pure sotto il profilo economico doveva essere molto più significativa e diffusa presso i ceti meno abbienti, anche per il basso costo delle attrezzature richieste. Per il ricorso alla metafora della fraus e dell adescamento in contesti dedicati all aucupium, vd. Hugo de Sancto Victore, Didascalicon de studio legendi 2, 25 Venatio dividitur in ferinam, aucupium et piscaturam. Longo, Le regole della caccia nel mondo greco-romano.

Aufidus 1 , p Vd. E ancora, la caccia è legittima quando obbedisce a scopi difensivi: Unica eccezione Cassiodoro, che riconosce sporadica cautela anche agli uccelli: Di ancor minore considerazione godeva, nel mondo antico, la pesca 16, priva com è delle valenze agonistiche della caccia, dal momento che i pesci sono per lo più inermi e la loro cattura è interamente basata sul ricorso ad esche e reti, in una parola sull uso di insidiae: Non sfuggirà, a questo punto, che l autore dell Octavia, operando un inversione rispetto alla graduatoria consueta, colloca l uccellagione al massimo grado della fraus, ribaltamento cui potrebbe non essere estranea la promozione della pesca operata dagli Halieutica, ovidiani o pseudoovidiani che siano Non di rado, l aucupium viene sfruttato nelle similitudini come figurante dell adescamento per eccellenza: La Penna, La disputa sul primato della caccia o della pesca nell antichità, Philologus , p Vd.

In secondo luogo ai vv colpisce nell economia generale dell excursus lo scarsissimo rilievo dato dall autore della praetexta alla seconda suboles, ché ad essa è riservato appena un complemento predicativo, minus mitis Oct: Zwierlein, Kritischer Kommentar zu den Tragödien Senecas. A play attributed to Seneca. Cambridge New York , pp , n. Delisle, Cabinet des manuscrits I-II. Paris , pp ; A. Studia Copernicana 1 , pp. Giunto nelle mani del teologo Gérard d'abbeville P.

Glorieux, Bibliothèques de Maîtres parisiens: Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 36 , pp ; P. La vie de Gérard d Abbeville. Archives d histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge 31 , pp , è tra i testi della biblioteca di Amiens che giunsero alla Sorbona per suo tramite R.

Siglato convenzionalmente P, il manoscritto appartiene alla famiglia del ramo A della tradizione. Questa famiglia, geograficamente riconducibile all area compresa tra la Francia del Nord e le Fiandre, include oltre a P, un secondo Parisinus Latinus risalente all inizio del XV sec.

Leo, De Senecae tragoediis observationes criticae. In base a siffatta scelta la congiunzione disgiuntiva vel introdurrebbe l introduzione di un metodo alternativo dell aucupium decipere crate oppure tenere laqueo , parallelamente al v. Lugduni Batavorum , p. Busche, Zu Octavia praet. Paris segnala nel testo una lacuna dopo crate e in apparato cita la proposta di Leo, op. Incertorum auctorum Hercules Otaeus, Octavia. Oxford crate vel tereti vagas predicativo dell oggetto implicito volucres, che fu già del Siegmund.

Peiper, Praefationis in Sen. Peiperi subsidiis instructus denuo edenda curavit. Siegmund, Zur Textkritik der Tragödie Octavia. Leipzig Wien , in base a Sen. Bonn e condivisa in apparato da Düring, sulla scia di Leo 25, ipotizza che il sostantivo crate sia stato originariamente vergato nel subarchetipo A o in suo apografo come variante di rete nello spazio interlineare corrispondente all attuale verso Notes on the text of Seneca s tragedies.

Boyle, Octavia attributed to Seneca. Oxford , integrazione che ha goduto e gode di maggior fortuna. Bologna , ad loc. Altrettanto dicasi per Ferri, op. Aeneas costas et cratis pectoris ensem o designare maforicamente tutto quanto risulti inestricabile Oros.

D altronde anche Ferri esclude che cratis possa essere connesso con la caccia: Talvolta reti di tal fatta venivano stese sulle fronde degli alberi con l aiuto di canne aucupatoriae.

A parer nostro, tuttavia, prima ancora di affrontare lo spinoso problema del v. In senso proprio calamus designa una pianta palustre dagli innumerevoli usi e campi d applicazione: In senso traslato calamus designa spesso per metonimia oggetti che da esso rarisque textu veluti nassis in alto iactis inoltre 21, ; 32, , per cui cfr.

Ecce etiam per antemnam pelagiae consederant volucres, quas textis harundinibus peritus artifex tetigit; illae viscatis inligatae viminibus deferebantur ad manus. Tollebat plumas aura volitantes, pinnasque per maria inanis spuma torquebat: Longo, La caccia al pesce.

Lévêque, , pp Cfr. Aucupium fit laqueis, pedicis, retibus, arcu, visco, hamo. Per questa sua qualità il calamus è il materiale ideale per le frecce: In ogni caso la iunctura non è mai usata né per la canna da pesca né per la canna aucupatoria. Calamus vero alius totus concavus, quem vocant syringian, utilissimus fistulis, quoniam nihil est ei cartilaginis atque carnis. Orchomenio et nodi continuo foramine pervii, quem auleticon vocant. Hic tibiis formata da due canne utilior, fistulis ille flauto di Pan, costituito da una serie di canne di sposte in ordine di lunghezza.

Il fatto che syringia e auleticon siano cavi, privi di sostanza cartilaginosa e graciles come poi viene precisato a , paragrafo interamente dedicato alle canne di E allora altamente probabile che calamo levi anche in Oct. Già abbiamo manifestato le nostre perplessità dinanzi all ipotesi che crate del v. Dei termini che, in contesti dedicati all aucupium, ricorrono come sinonimi di calamus, ovvero harundo, canna, ames, i primi due sono sicuramente troppo comuni per richiedere una glossa; d uso estremamente raro risulta invece ames, per cui cfr.

E probabile che ad un significato del genere avesse pensato già N. Troviamo il verso oraziano citato in un anonimo trattato di metrica, i Fragmenta Sangallensia ad res metricas pertinentia, De iambico trimetro e cod.

Quanto all aut levi che chiude il verso, occorre tenere presente che il tradito dei codici non è unanime, presentando in alternativa l abbreviazione di ante 42, che paleograficamente poco si distingue dalla nota tachigrafica per aut: Thuaneus sigla B , uno dei due codici che trasmettono gli Halieutica di Ovidio l altro è il Vindobonensis noto come A: XII-XIII ipotizza attendibilmente che l apografo comune di B ed A fosse scritto in una corsiva precarolina caratterizzata dalla -a- a forma di cc accostate, quale possiamo rintracciare nella minuscola insulare, nella cosiddetta merovingica di Luxeuil e di Corbie, oltre che nella beneventana.

Analogo errore presenta il Thuaneus, che contiene ai ff un miniflorilegio delle tragedie senecane secondo la redazione E per l esattezza Tro , Med , Oed e e che per Tro. Zwierlein, Prolegomena zu einer kritischen Ausgabe der Tragödien Senecas. Il che apre la possibilità che anche l Octavia possa essere stata presente nella tradizione E in una fase precedente alla composizione dell Etruscus o del suo antigrafo.

L attendibilità di tale proposta, coerente anche con l imitatio oraziana affiorante qua e là nel testo dell Octavia 46, trova ulteriori riscontri sotto il profilo metrico: Avremmo pertanto una struttura di tal fatta: Un possibile integrazione è l infinito fallere 49, con desinenza poco 45 Per la poesia mediolatina cfr.

Johannis de Garlandia, Epithal. Per un computo statistico delle occorrenze di dattili in terza sede su un totale dei trimetri giambici presenti nel corpus delle tragedie senecane vd. O Sufficientemente attestata la compresenza di fallere e decipere nel medesimo contesto: Il quadro sin qui delineato risulta poi coerente con la struttura sintattica e stilistica dell intero passaggio, che ha i suoi tratti caratteristici: In funzione simbolica, Hil.

Sic quoque et anima nostra caveat ad haec mundana descendere. Laqueus in auro, viscum est in argento, nexus in praedio, clavus in amore. Dum aurum petimus, strangulamur: Quin etiam mulieris decus, dum temptatur, adstringit. The final seven epigrams of Martial s Book 1 form a subtle but important closural sequence epigrams inclusive. Despite their great variatio of topics, the seven epigrams are linked through concerns about the boundary between life and death, the integrity of a monument, and the theme of dignus legi, or what makes someone worthy of being read.

Through a series of close readings, this article argues for the coherence of this sequence on formal, thematic, and verbal grounds. The sequence is centered on a pair of epigrams on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young girl named Antulla 1.

The function of this closural sequence is both formal, to bring closure to a disparate collection of epigrams, and thematic, to reprise themes from the mock-epitaph with which Martial opens book 1 1.

Martial, epigram, closure, fama, poetry book, Antulla, tomb, epitaph, naming. A book of epigrams, especially one with a variatio of subject matter as dramatic as that of Book 1 of Martial, can appear to be of arbitrary length and arrangement. The author or editor of a given epigram book uses variatio of tone, theme, et cetera to prevent boredom over the course of a collection of a hundred or more epigrams, and techniques of unification such as overarching subject matter and self-referential opening and closing sequences to give the book coherence if not architecture.

The editors and authors of Hellenistic epigram collections, as observed by Kathryn Gutzwiller, use a single topic to unify a given book. Martial uses the very variatio that could work against artistic unity and, instead, exploits this variatio to create finely crafted substructures that bring closure, and thereby formal coherence, to his Book 1.

Hellenistic Epigrams in Context. All flaws that remain are my own. These epigrams form a carefully crafted symmetrical arrangement that despite the apparent heterogeneity of theme in fact is, itself, internally coherent both formally and thematically. I disagree, therefore, with readers such as Johannes Scherf who argue that the closural sequences of Martial s books are weniger kohärent than the opening sequences; I maintain that the closural sequence of Book 1, at least, is subtle but, upon close inspection, very coherent.

In addition, these epigrams, collectively, play with the tension between a linear journey of indeterminate length and the fixed, integral monuments, and between the busy, bustling, quotidian city and the tranquil, timeless countryside. The placement of this symmetrical sequence at the very end of Book 1 thematizes the end of the book: All of these thematic and formal characteristics, not consistent but coherent, combine to highlight the theme of dignus legi, the question of what makes someone the patron, the deceased person, or the poet himself worthy of being read.

The symmetry of the seven-epigram closural sequence depends upon a closely matched pair of poignant sepulchral epigrams. These two epigrams, both on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young, unmarried woman named Antulla, form a strong diptych with one another, 4 each being three couplets in length. They frame the middle epigram of the symmetrical sequence 1.

The centrality of the two tombstone epigrams as third and fifth in the seven-epigram sequence invites us to ask what this sequence of epigrams does for us thematically and formally.

Scherf, Untersuchungen zur Buchgestaltung Martials. Munich and Leipzig , For a theoretically sophisticated treatment of Martial s book as monument, see pages in L. Journal of Roman Studies 91 O. Gli epigrammi funerari per Erotion in Marziale. Materiali e discussioni per l analisi dei testi classici 48 , On the Antulla pair as kepotaphion and its literary context, see A. Manzo, La fonte greca degli epigrami sepolcrali di Marziale.

Milan , , esp. Hic est quem legis ille, quem requiris toto notus in orbe Martialis argutis epigrammaton libellis. Here he is, the one whom you read, the one whom you ask for, Martial, known throughout the entire world for his witty little books of epigrams.

Dedicated reader, the recognition which you have given him while he is alive and able to know it few poets have even after the grave. The themes that Martial first starts to play with in epigram 1. The World of the Epigram. Chicago , See M. Valerii Martialis Epigrammaton liber primus. Introduzione, testo, apparato critico e commento. The sequence consists of three symmetrical, concentric pairs, which I shall describe below, emanating from a central epigram as follows: The outermost ring of the sequence, epigrams and or the first and seventh in the sequence, consists of two poems, each one couplet in length, that dramatize conversations and social posturing between two men, one 1.

Of these seven epigrams, two substructures stand out: However, epigrams and 1. The sequence opens thus: Cum te non nossem, dominum 8 regemque vocabam: When I didn t know you, I called you lord and king: Epigram The sequence starts with a one-couplet epigram on the conventions of naming in the context of patronage.

The speaker makes a play on the name of his patron initially addressed by the honorifics dominus and rex , turning a cognomen into an impudent claim to long-standing familiarity with the higher-status addressee. The following epigram, 1. Quaecumque lusi iuvenis et puer quondam apinasque nostras, quas nec ipse iam novi, male collocare si bonas voles horas et invidebis otio tuo, lector, a Valeriano Pollio petes Quinto, per quem perire non licet meis nugis.

Whatever I played at as a youth once, and as a boy, and our trifles, which I myself no longer recognize, if you want to pass your good hours badly and if you bear ill-will toward your free time, reader, seek them from Quintus Pollius Valerianus, who does not allow my nuggets to perish.

Epigram Here, Quintus Valerianus Pollius preserves and makes available the poet s juvenilia which the speaker-poet rhetorically disparages, either as a show of not wanting his mature work to be diluted by inferior poetry, or as an oblique way of drawing attention to the loyalty that his verse inspires.

Shackleton Bailey, Martialis Epigrammata. Hos tibi vicinos, Faustine, Telesphorus hortos Faenius et breve rus udaque prata tenet. Faenius Telesphorus holds these gardens next to you, Faustinus, and this little estate and moist meadows. Here he has buried the ashes of his daughter Antulla and has sanctified her name which you read here; he himself would more deservedly be read. It would have been just for the father to have gone to the Stygian shades: But since that was not permitted, let him live, so that he may honor her bones.

Epigram In this epigram, Martial draws attention to the topographical setting, the gardens next to the property of the addressee Faustinus, outside Rome implied by countryside, rus, in line 2. The sombre tone is a contrast to the social backand-forth of the preceding two epigrams. The tone changes radically once again with the following epigram, 1. Quaedam me cupit, invide, Procille! A certain girl desires me be jealous, Procillus!

But I want a certain girl who is darker than night, than an ant, pitch, grackle, cricket. You were just now thinking of hanging yourself: Epigram The speaker s formally balanced descriptions of two women provoke in the addressee, alternately, envy as expressed through a desire to hang himself, and Schadenfreude, expressed through a desire to keep living.

Hoc nemus aeterno cinerum sacravit honori Faenius et culti iugera pauca soli. Faenius has consecrated this grove and these few acres of tilled soil for the everlasting honor of ashes. Antulla, snatched too soon from her own people, is covered by this sepulchre, in this each of Antulla s parents will be mingled. If someone desires this little field, I warn you, don t let him hope: Epigram Like the first epigram in the Antulla pair, this commemorates Antulla, her tomb garden, and her father s grief.

In addition, this epigram s speaker makes an explicit claim to protect the integrity of Antulla s tomb Despite the change in tone from the preceding skoptic epigram, the present sepulchral epigram nevertheless continues the theme of covetousness and envy, but here it is the desire of a hypothetical third party for the little field agellum, 5 that hosts Antulla s tomb; and the speaker s motives in drawing attention to the envy of others are noble rather than petty as in Pettiness returns in the following epigram 1.

Occurris quotiens, Luperce, nobis, vis mittam puerum subinde dicis, cui tradas epigrammaton libellum, lectum quem tibi protinus remittam? Henriksén, Martial s Modes of Mourning. Sepulchral Epitaphs in the Epigrams. Van Dam and J. Leiden and Boston ,. Argi nempe soles subire Letum: Every time you run into me, Lupercus, you immediately say, I want to send you a boy you can give your little book of epigrams to, which I ll return as soon as I ve read it.

It s not worth troubling your boy with, Lupercus. It s a long way, if he wants to go to Pear Street, and I live up three flights of stairs, and long ones at that. What you want you can find closer to home. You must go by the Argiletum a lot: Look for me there. Ask for Atrectus 10 that s the name of the guy who runs the shop and from the first or second shelf he ll give you a Martial all smoothed with pumice and done up with purple for five denarii.

Not a fair price, you say? You re a bright boy, Lupercus. Epigram The setting, in the middle of urban Rome and its crowded social negotiations, contrasts sharply with the rural, natural setting of the Antulla epigrams, and the language and imagery of motion through the city contrasts with the static monument of the Antulla epigrams.

The sequence ends with this distich 1. I follow Shackleton Bailey s conjecture of nam for nec in line 13 op. For one to whom a hundred epigrams are not enough, nothing, Caedicianus, is enough of a bad thing.

Epigram Formally, it responds to the first epigram in the sequence 1. I take Caedicianus here to be the target of the joke the cui in line 1 who wants more epigrams than can fit in a book.

Since this epigram coincides with the end of the book, it means that the symmetrical sequence does too, and the joke is on Caedicianus since he cannot read any more. What unifies all of these epigrams is an interest, expressed in an astonishing variety of ways, in stages of life, proper and improper limits of life, and commemoration after death.

This is obvious in the two epigrams on Antulla, the first of which expresses the sentiment that it would have been more fair aequum for Antulla s father Faenius Telesphorus to have preceded her in death , and the second of which expands on this topos, common in sepulchral inscriptions on children who die before marriage, by saying that Antulla was taken away too soon from her family cito,.

Stages of life show up elsewhere in the sequence. Martial s youthful poetry, rather than meeting a deserved mors immatura, is, instead, given undeserved life by Valerianus, someone who does not allow my nuggets to perish per quem perire non licet meis nugis,. Martial s poetic oeuvre is therefore described in terms of stages of his own life iuvenis et puer quondam,.

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